Diverse Geophysical Instrumentation Products

Geonics Metal Detectors

Geonics Metal Detectors are high power, high sensitivity metal detectors suitable for applications in the detection of both ferrous and non-ferrous metal. Insensitive to common sources of both geologic and cultural noise, Metal Detectors can be operated without compromise to data quality in most survey environments.

Common applications, in several fields of geophysical practice, include the detection of environmental hazards (e.g. drums, underground storage tanks (USTs)); utilities and infrastructure; construction and industrial waste; and unexploded ordnance (UXO).

EM61-MK2A: recognized as a standard sensor technology within the environmental and military communities, the EM61-MK2A provides a maximum depth of detection of 5.5 m, depending on target characteristics.

EM61S: providing the same detection capabilities as the standard EM61-MK2, the EM61S has been modified to operate in the marine environment specifically, either on, or below the surface of water.

EM61HH-MK2A: relative to the standard EM61-MK2, the EM61HH-MK2 (Hand-Held) provides increased sensitivity to smaller targets at shallow depths and better rejection of cultural noise, with a maximum depth of detection of ?? m, depending on target characteristics.

EM63-3D-MK2: advancing the state-of-the-art in instrumentation for the discrimination and classification of unexploded ordnance, the EM63 provides measurement of the full transient decay associated with any metallic target.

Data collection and processing associated with any Metal Detector is supported by an integrated data acquisition system that provides for the simultaneous recording of both EM and GPS data; the DAS70-ML Data Acquisition System is an available option that supports multiple unit configurations, specifically.


The modular design of the PROTEM Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Systems – a single receiver with multiple, interchangeable transmitters and receiver coils – provides the flexibility required to accommodate a broad range of applications, from near-surface environmental and engineering studies, to three-component resource exploration at depths of 1000 m or more.

PROTEM Reciever

Within the exploration community there is a well known trade-off between depth of exploration and target definition in terms of conductivity, extent and orientation. Greatest depth is obtained with large fixed loop Turam-type systems which generate large half-space responses that, along with current gathering, makes target detection difficult. Better spatial resolution is obtained with a moving transmitter configuration with a short intercoil spacing, but is limited to a shallower depth of exploration. These variations in survey requirements make system flexibility an important design consideration.

Time domain systems are also routinely employed for general geological applications, such as exploration for freshwater aquifers in bedrock fractures, and mapping groundwater contaminant plumes. Investigations to shallow depths, as necessary in these applications, requires a very wide bandwidth and many narrow sampling gates.

Time domain systems are also routinely employed for general geological applications, such as exploration for freshwater aquifers in bedrock fractures, and mapping groundwater contaminant plumes. Investigations to shallow depths, as necessary in these applications, requires a very wide bandwidth and many narrow sampling gates.

Recognition of such diverse requirements led to the development of the extremely flexible PROTEM time domain system. The digital, three component receiver is used with any of the three TEM transmitters and choice of receiver coils to cover all applications. With true 23 bit resolution (at a single gain), system bandwidth of 270 kHz, microsecond sampling gates and simultaneous three component (XYZ) measurements, the PROTEM receiver provides the ultimate in time domain capability.

The PROTEM receiver enables the selection of either 20 gates per base frequency covering two decades of time, or 30 gates for a three decade range. If three decades of time are required to cover the decay, then this selection saves switching frequencies and repeating the measurement; if only two decades are required, using the 20 gate range reduces the measurement time by a factor of 10.

MEASURED QUANTITIES: Rate of decay of induced magnetic field along 3 axes, in nV/m2

EM SENSOR: Air-cored coils

CHANNELS: 1 channel used sequentially for 3 components or, optionally 3 channels for 3 components simultaneously

TIME GATES: 20 gates over 2 time decades, or 30 gates covering 3 time decades

DYNAMIC RANGE: 23 bits (132 dB)

BASE FREQUENCY: 0.3, 0.75, 3, 7.5, 30, 75, 285 Hz, or 0.25, 0.625, 2.5, 6.25, 25, 62.5, 237.5 Hz

INTEGRATION TIME: 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60 or 120 s

DISPLAY: 240 x 64 dot graphic LCD

DATA HANDLING: Solid-state memory for 3300 data sets, RS232 output

SYNCHRONIZATION: Reference cable or, optionally, highly stable quartz crystal

POWER SUPPLY: 12 V rechargeable battery (approx. 8 h continuous)

DIMENSIONS: 34 x 38 x 27 cm

WEIGHT: 15 kg



Three interchangeable transmitters – TEM47, TEM57-MK2 and TEM67 – are used with the PROTEM receiver and an appropriate receiver coil to make up different PROTEM systems for various applications such as mineral exploration, structural mapping, resistivity sounding and contaminant plume mapping.

The TEM47 is the smallest and lightest battery operated transmitter, with a very fast turn-off time to enable measurement of the near-surface response. The PROTEM 47 (including PROTEM receiver, TEM47 transmitter) is most often used for shallow resistivity sounding of groundwater contamination, saline intrusion and geologic units. In this configuration, single turn transmitter loops from 5 m to 100 m on a side, with turn-off times as short as half a microsecond, can be used to give maximum near-surface resolution.

The transmitter output current of 3A into a 100 m x 100 m loop gives good response and resolution to depths of 150 m, making this the ideal instrument for resistivity sounding over a large area. The 30 gate, 3 time decade measurement is usually enough to cover the full decay curve including the early time gates, without changing base frequency.

The TEM47 uses a reference cable to achieve the high synchronization accuracy required for shallow sounding. Regardless of application a high-frequency receiver coil is used with all PROTEM 47 systems – the high-frequency coil has the bandwidth necessary to capture the earliest portion of the transient decay.

For greater consideration of structural response within complex geologic environments, the three – component high frequency receiver coil is recommended.

When used in a PROTEM 47 system for profiling, the TEM47 supplies 2.5 A to an 8-turn, 5 m x 5 m moving transmitter loop to provide a dipole moment of 500 Am2. With base frequency of 75 Hz, and 20 gates from 49µs to 2.9 ms, this configuration is optimal for Slingram (horizontal loop) surveys for mineral exploration to shallow depths, and for groundwater exploration in bedrock fractures electrical sounding is performed simultaneously with the search for fault or dike-like targets.

CURRENT WAVEFORM: Bipolar rectangular current with 50% duty cycle

BASE FREQUENCY: 30, 75, or 285 Hz where powerline frequency is 60 Hz; 25, 62.5 or 237.5 Hz where powerline frequency is 50 Hz

TURN-OFF TIME: 2.5 µs at 3 A into 40 x 40 m loop; faster into smaller loop

TRANSMITTER LOOP: 5 x 5 to 100 x 100 m single turn loop, or 5 x 5 m 8-turn loop

OUTPUT VOLTAGE: 0 to 9 V, continuously variable

POWER SUPPLY: Internal 12 V rechargeable battery

BATTERY LIFE: 5 h continuous operation at 2 A output

DIMENSIONS: 10.5 x 24 x 32 cm

WEIGHT: 5.3 kg


The TEM57-MK2 Transmitter is the upgraded version of the TEM57, and combined with the PROTEM receiver are the principal components of the PROTEM 57-MK2 system. The design and performance of the TEM57-MK2, with increased power of 1,500 W from an internal power supply, makes it a highly portable, powerful mid-range time domain transmitter. The internal power supply has variable voltage range from 18 to 60 V so that it can be precisely matched to the transmitter loop for optimum performance. An external battery supply increases performance to 3,800 W and 160 V.

The TEM57-MK2 is the perfect mid-range power transmitter for sounding depth, thickness and conductivity of geologic layers down to 500 metres for a wide variety of applications such as mapping of aquifers and aquitards, water quality and stratigraphy. In coastal area, the PROTEM 57-MK2 system has defined depth to saline intrusion as accurately as chemical well samples.

The PROTEM 57-MK2, with a short reference cable, portable transmitter and 3-D receiver coil, can delineate complex ore bodies within 200 m of surface. Deeper conductors can be characterized by profiling with a crystal-synchronized receiver and a large, fixed transmitter loop. Modelling provides conductivity, thickness, dip and extent of the ore body.

CURRENT WAVEFORM: Bipolar rectangular current with 50% duty cycle

BASE FREQUENCY: 3, 7.5, or 30 Hz where powerline frequency is 60 Hz; 2.5, 6.25, or 25 Hz where powerline frequency is 50 Hz. Rates below 1 Hz available from PROTEM receiver through reference cable

TURN-OFF TIME: 20 to 115 µs, depending on size, current and number of turns in transmitter loop

TRANSMITTER LOOP: Single turn: any dimension; minimum resistance is 0.7 ohms, up to 300 x 600 m. 8-turn: 5 x 5 or 10 x 10 m

OUTPUT CURRENT: 18 to 60 V continuous control with motor generator; up to 160 V (3,800 W) with external power supply

SYNCHRONIZATION: Reference cable or, optionally, quartz crystal

POWER SUPPLY:1,800 W, 110/220 V, 50/60 Hz single-phase motor generator or, optionally, multiple 12 V batteries

TRANSMITTER PROTECTION: Electronic and electromechanical protection

DIMENSIONS: 43 x 25 x 25 cm

WEIGHT: 15 kg


The TEM67 transmitter is the most powerful of the current PROTEM transmitters, replacing the TEM37 of the previous generation. Not only is the TEM67 (3800 W) more powerful than the TEM37 (2800 W), but the new transmitter also provides an element of flexibility not previously available with time domain transmitters.

The TEM67 is comprised of two principal components: a complete TEM57-MK2 transmitter; and an integral, but separate power module with a larger (4500 W) power generator. Such modular design allows for easy upgrade from the TEM57-MK2 by the addition of the power module and generator. Subsequently, when applications do not require the full capabilities of the TEM67, the more portable, mid-range TEM57-MK2 can be operated independently.

The PROTEM 67 system with the 3D receiver coil is the ideal time domain system for profiling deeply buried conductive ore bodies, such as massive sulphides, to depths in excess of 500 m, and with the 3-axis BH43-3 borehole probe for time domain logging to 2 kilometres.

The PROTEM 67 is also ideal for deep soundings in groundwater exploration, saline intrusion mapping, geothermal exploration, and regional geological research where structures and layer information is required to depths of 1,000 m or more.

CURRENT WAVEFORM: Bipolar rectangular current with 50% duty cycle

BASE FREQUENCY: 0.3, 0.75, 3, 7.5 or 30 Hz where power line frequency is 60 Hz; 0.25, 0.625, 2.5 or 25 Hz where power line frequency 50 Hz; Rates below 1 Hz available from PROTEM receiver through reference cable

TRANSMITTER LOOP: Up to 2,000 x 2,000 m single turn

OUTPUT CURRENT: 25 A maximum

OUTPUT VOLTAGE: 18 to 150 V continuously adjustable

SYNCHRONIZATION: Reference cable or, optionally, quartz crystal

POWER SUPPLY: 4,500 W, 115 or 110/220 V, 50/60 Hz, single phase with 8 h continuous operation motor generator

TRANSMITTER PROTECTION: Electronic and electromechanical protection

DIMENSIONS: 43 x 25 x 25 cm (TEM57-MK2); 42 x 20 x 31 cm (Power Module)

WEIGHT: 15 kg (TEM57-MK2); 12 kg (Power Module)




By consolidating the PROTEM receiver and TEM47 transmitter components into a single console, the PROTEM CM system offers significant improvements in portability and convenience: As compared to the individual receiver and transmitter components, the PROTEM CM is both smaller in size, and less in weight by about half. The increase in component portability will be of particular benefit for surveys in more demanding environments, both in-mine and over rugged terrain.

Available with cable reference synchronization only, for either single component or sequential three-component data collection, PROTEM CM otherwise offers the same functions and performance characteristics as the standard PROTEM 47 components, and is compatible with all other Geonics transmitters.

For greater depth of exploration, a high power (HP) modification to increase the output current from the transmitter section is available as an option.


With the objective to reduce cost while both maintaining the core performance characteristics of the more advanced PROTEM systems and adding several new performance-enhancing features, the new G-TEM system represents exceptional value in time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) instrumentation for both academic and commercial applications alike.

Designed as a complete system for exploration of the geologic near-surface, the modular G-TEM components are also compatible with all PROTEM system components, in cable reference mode only, supporting exploration to greater depths and a wider range of applications.

Induction Coils

Six induction coils are available, each most appropriate for certain depths and applications. For shallow resistivity soundings, the high bandwidth of the high frequency coils is needed for the rapidly changing early-time signal. Comparatively, for deeper soundings, or for measuring late-time signal from conductive ore bodies, the larger effective area of the low frequency coils amplifies the very low amplitude late-time signals to measureable levels.

When the stratigraphy of the survey environment is effectively flat-lying, a single component coil is generally appropriate. The response from sub-vertical structure, however, is three dimensional; in these environments, the measurement of all three components will result in an easier and more accurate interpretation. Both high and low frequency coils are available in both single component (1D) and three component (3D) versions.

Geonics induction coils are air-cored, rather than ferrite-cored, offering two significant advantages: most ferrite materials exhibit some self-response when subject to strong primary magnetic fields, which can unnecessarily add noise to the data. Second, ferrite-cored coils are long and thin in design which tends to make them sensitive to noise from wind-induced vibration; air-cored coils with “flat” geometry are much less sensitive to this effect.


Some ore bodies can be so conductive that induced eddy currents decay exceedingly slowly, in which case voltage induced in an induction coil may be too small to measure. The actual magnetic field amplitude associated with such ore bodies, however, will be quite high. Overburden or other lesser conductors will produce relatively weak magnetic fields that decay rapidly leaving, by late time, only fields from the more conductive targets. For such circumstances, a three component (3D) fluxgate magnetometer sensor is available.

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