Downhole equipment

In general, the standard downhole test is applied for near surface investigations using a simple sledge hammer as surface source together with different kinds of analog borehole geophones designed for maximum depths of around 100 m.

In case of deeper underground investigations (e.g. for nuclear end storage investigations or mining purposes) large weighted vibrator surface sources are required together with a digital borehole geophone whose technology fulfills the requirements for downhole measurements in depths up to 2000 m.

Sledge Hammer | Surface Source

The sledge hammer is used to generate seismic waves (P- or S-waves) at the surface. A piezotrigger element is attached to the hammer. The output piezo signal is transformed to a TTL pulse by a small box to provide an exact time break to the seismograph.

It is a suitable source for shallow downhole surveys up to a depth of 100 m.

BGK3/7 | Borehole Geophone

The borehole geophone BGK3 is used to receive P- and S-waves in dry or water filled boreholes. The borehole geophone BGK3 consists of a tri-axial sensor whereas the BGK7 consists of six horizontal sensors, separated by 30° intervals, and one vertical sensor.

The geophone is coupled to the borehole wall by a pneumatic clamping system (inflatable bladder). Air is supplied to the BGK3/7 through an electro-pneumatic hybrid cable with a Kevlar tension string. A magnetic compass shows azimuthal deviation to North and can be used to get the orientation of the geophone in the borehole. The cable is terminated by a connector to the seismograph.

BGK5 | Borehole Geophone

The borehole geophone BGK5 is used to receive P- and S-waves in dry or water filled boreholes. The borehole geophone BGK5 consists of four horizontal sensors, separated by 45° intervals, and one vertical sensor.

The geophone is coupled to the borehole wall by a pneumatic clamping system (inflatable bladder). Air is supplied to the BGK5 through an electro-pneumatic hybrid cable with a Kevlar tension string. The cable is terminated by a connector to the seismograph.

DDS | Dual Downhole System

The Dual Downhole System (DDS) is used to receive P- and S-waves in dry and water filled boreholes in order to determine interval velocities. The DDS consists of two stations each equipped with tri-axial sensors. The stations are mechanically connected to each other to ensure the alignment of all horizontal sensors.

Both stations are coupled to the borehole wall by a pneumatic clamping system (inflatable bladder). Air is supplied to the DDS through an electro-pneumatic hybrid cable with a Kevlar tension string. A magnetic compass shows azimuthal deviation to North and can be used to get the orientation of the DDS in the borehole. The cable is terminated by a connector to the seismograph.

BGK1000 | Borehole Geophone

The BGK1000 is a digital borehole geophone used to receive P- and S-waves in dry and water filled boreholes. It is manufactured by Hinz Messtechnik GmbH and exclusively distributed by Geotomographie. The borehole geophone BGK1000 consists of a downhole probe with a tri-axial geophone sensor and a surface communication unit connected to the USB port of a laptop. Optionally, a hydrophone sensor can be added. An auxiliary channel can be connected to the surface unit to record an external seismic signal, i.e. a pilot vibrator sweep.

Triggering is made via the surface unit allowing TTL pulse, geophone or contact triggering. The borehole geophone is designed to run on a winch equipped with a 4-conductor cable and a Gearhart Owen cable head. The geophone is coupled to the borehole wall by a mechanical clamping system (motor-driven arm). A magnetic compass is used to get the sensor orientation in the borehole. Seismic data are stored in SEG2 format by the acquisition software. A seismograph is not required.

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